Freedom of the press or freedom of expression have become basic points of democratic development in modern societies. The Spanish Constitution of 1812 already enshrined this right: "All Spaniards are free to write, print and publish their political ideas without the need for any licence, revision or approval prior to publication, subject to the restrictions and responsibility established by law".
While everything that is published, except that which directly incurs crimes such as slander and libel, must be defended according to the principles of freedom of the press, not everything that is published is journalism. The exercise of journalism is distinguished not only by freedom, but also by a civil morality, a sense of responsibility that has not always reigned in the media.
The Spanish Constitution, in force since 1978, makes it clear that freedom of expression is one of the basic points of our legal system, as stated in article 20:
1. Rights are recognised and protected:
a) To freely express and disseminate thoughts, ideas and opinions by word, writing or any other means of production.
b) To literary, artistic, scientific and technical production and creation.
c) To academic freedom.
d) To freely communicate or obtain truthful information by any means of dissemination. The law shall regulate the right to a clause of conscience and professional secrecy in the exercise of these freedoms.
2. The exercise of these rights may not be limited by any form of prior censorship.
3. The law shall regulate the organisation and parliamentary control of the mass media dependent on the State or any public entity and shall guarantee access to these services for significant social and political groups, respecting the pluralism of society and the different languages of Spain.
4. These freedoms shall be limited in respect for the rights recognised in this Title, in the precepts of the laws implementing it and, in particular, in the right to honour, privacy, personal image and the protection of minors and children.
5. The seizure of any publication, recordings and other means of information may only be ordered by virtue of a judicial decision.
MARCA advocates sport as an ideal way to achieve personal and social development through values that go beyond competition.
Effort, the desire to excel, integration, respect and tolerance, companionship, dedication, overcoming one's own limits and teamwork are values intrinsic to the practice of sport itself and which help us to achieve complete physical and social development in our society.
Another of MARCA's objectives is to promote inclusivity in sport in order to encourage people with disabilities to participate in sport and to integrate them socially, as well as accessibility to sport and especially to women's sport, which we are committed to making more prominent.
Founded in 1938 and published by Unidad Editorial, its majority shareholder is RCS MediaGroup. It is based in Madrid, although it has several international editions.
Director: Juan Ignacio Gallardo
Deputy Editor: Emilio Contreras
Deputy Editor: Gerardo Riquelme, Carlos Carpio, Mario G. Estrela y Juan Ignacio García-Ochoa
President: Marco Pompignoli
The attribution of the news to defined sources gives it a special value: any information where the source is identified gains credibility in the eyes of readers. For this reason, every effort must be made to identify the source, so that the reader does not get a feeling that the journalist is being too clever, is making up what he or she is reporting, or is in possession of divine knowledge.
The task of attribution is never easy because it clashes with the right and duty of confidentiality to protect sources who wish to remain anonymous, a right guaranteed by the Spanish Constitution (art. 20). This professional confidentiality is exercised by the journalist, but it is the source and, ultimately, society as a whole that is protected. This problem is exacerbated in the Spanish context because there are numerous sources who feel sufficiently unprotected as to demand anonymity.
What is the solution? There is no single remedy, but two options that should be pursued in each case are as follows:
1. Search for corroborating sources. Once a key piece of information has been obtained from a source that has requested confidentiality, other sources can be sought to confirm it and can be identified. This is probably more likely to be done through documented sources than human sources, but the journalist should not rule out finding the latter.
2. The need for more precise attribution. It is often possible, even in the case of a source who demands confidentiality, to agree with the source to be identified, if not completely, then with a degree of detail, which will help to reinforce the credibility of the information in the eyes of the reader.
Each time a journalist questions the material he or she is given, verifies it, completes it, corrects it with new evidence —whenever possible, from independent sources— or documentary data, he or she is also making that same leap. Even more so when practically all the information is based on material discovered by the journalist's personal initiative; in other words, when investigative reporting is carried out. Blindly accepting the data provided by an interested source without checking and verifying them (or disproving them, if necessary) is professional negligence which is unjustifiable.
The right to correction is a right regulated by law in Spain. At MARCA, any reader can exercise this right to rectify information that he or she considers inaccurate and that causes him or her harm. Correction of information can be requested, although not of opinions or value judgements. The request must be sent to the newspaper within seven calendar days of publication. The newspaper must complete the request within three days.
MARCA is a publication with a diverse approach and this translates into a daily commitment to ensure that all information always includes all the points of view concerned and to include the widest possible diversity of opinion. MARCA is committed to equal opportunities. Its human resources policy values only the professional qualifications of its employees, regardless of their gender, race, religious beliefs or sexual identity, with no discrimination. And this commitment shapes a diverse and open newsroom, a reflection of the society in which we live.
MARCA actively encourages the participation of its readers and interaction with the content. Practically every article in the newspaper offers a space for giving feedback, commenting on the news, or on the work of our journalists. Likewise, comments and feedback from users are also received through social media channels, including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and TikTok. MARCA also offers the possibility for readers to report offensive comments to our moderation team. The moderation team ensures that the quality and standards of the newspaper are maintained, intervening where necessary to remove insults, disparaging and inappropriate comments.
For further information and suggestions, MARCA has set up an e-mail account: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Avenida San Luis, 25, 28033, Madrid
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